Publications

Concomitant active tuberculosis prolongs survival in non-small cell lung cancer: a study in a tuberculosis-endemic country

Scott Chih-Hsi Kuo, Lo CY, Chung FT, Lee KY, Lin SM, Wang CH, Heh CC, Chen HC, and Kuo HP..
PLoS One. 2012 (2012)

Adjuvant tumor cell vaccine with chemotherapy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) shows limited clinical response. Whether it provokes effective cellular immunity in tumor microenvironment is questionable. Concomitant active tuberculosis in NSCLC (TBLC) resembles locoregional immunotherapy of tumor cell vaccine; thus, maximally enriches effective anti-tumor immunity. This study compares the survival and immunological cell profile in TBLC over NSCLC alone.

METHODS:

Retrospective review of NSCLC patients within 1-year-period of 2007 and follow-up till 2010.

RESULTS:

A total 276 NSCLC patients were included. The median survival of TBLC is longer than those of NSCLC alone (11.6 vs. 8.8 month, p<0.01). Active tuberculosis is an independent predictor of better survival with HR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48 ~ 0.97). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (55.8 vs. 31.7%, p<0.01) is a significant risk factor for NSCLC with active TB. The median survival of SCC with active tuberculosis is significantly longer than adenocarcinoma or undetermined NSCLC with TB (14.2 vs. 6.6 and 2.8 months, p<0.05). Active tuberculosis in SCC increases the expression of CD3 (46.4 ± 24.8 vs. 24.0 ± 16.0, p<0.05), CXCR3 (35.1 ± 16.4 vs. 19.2 ± 13.3, p<0.01) and IP-10 (63.5 ± 21.9 vs. 35.5 ± 21.0, p<0.01), while expression of FOXP3 is decreased (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 13.3 ± 3.7 p<0.05, p<0.05). Survival of SCC with high expression of CD3 (12.1 vs. 3.6 month, p<0.05) and CXCR3 (12.1 vs. 4.4 month, p<0.05) is longer than that with low expression.

CONCLUSIONS:

Active tuberculosis in NSCLC shows better survival outcome. The effective T lymphocyte infiltration in tumor possibly underlies the mechanism. Locoregional immunotherapy of tumor cell vaccine may deserve further researches.